Thesis motivational techniques

Furthermore, many meetings are often accompanied by hidden agendas, manipulation, and domination by a few so that everything except collaboration is encouraged. IN fact, it has been determined that excessive and unproductive meetings drive more talented employees out of companies than any other single cause. The productivity of meetings can be greatly enhanced by providing training for meeting leaders and establishing guidelines for running meetings most effectively.

Also, use meeting formats that encourage everyone to participate. Furthermore, when appropriate, more cost- effective alternatives to in-person meeting such conference calls, computer-mediated communications, and video teleconferencing should be considered. Lack of follow-up in an organization will impede the improvement of work and forces employees express disagree with management style and criticize their managers.

To counteract this, a "process mentality" must replace the all-too-prevalent program mentality in companies. In addition, approval for all new projects should be withheld until there is a sufficient long-term commitment to their continuation. Then once that commitment is made, the new initiative should receive adequate resources and staffing so that it has a good chance to be successful. Change is vital for organizational success, but some organizations simply like to shake things up by changing things for the sake of change.

Other organizations change excessively because of lack of clear management focus or poor planning. Today's workplace is turbulent enough without workers having to worry about unnecessary changes-especially last- minute changes. Change is actually highly motivating when it is results-oriented and well communicated. Few employees resist change when they perceive it as clearly instrumental to organizational goals. When changes are essential, the rationale for change should be promptly and precisely communicated to employees. Managers should also be encouraged to take more time to plan their activities.

Although internal competition may appear to have short-term benefit, in the long run it undermines trust, reduces cooperation, and generates negative emotions. So-called "'healthy competition" frequently turns adversarial and transforms functions into factions, creating a sense of "us" versus "them. The efficient solution to this problem is the use of cross-functional improvement teams and closer internal employees' relationships that can reduce this kind of dysfunctional internal competitiveness.

People resent being lied to, particularly so when the falsehood comes from someone they have come to trust. That is why it is so demoralizing for employees to discover that their employers is not telling the truth. Whether it takes the form of making a false claim, covering up a mistake, or failing to reveal an important fact, organizational dishonesty hurts employees deeply.

In many companies, however, it is not considered "lying. In my opinion these managers must be dismissed or punished, because they are dishonest and immoral. It is motivating for employees to trust their organization. Employees should be proud to tell the world, "I work for X corporation! It takes a long time to fill the bucket. However, a single act of dishonesty can overturn the entire "trust bucket" and spill out all the trust that has been so painstakingly accumulated through the years.

This why it said that "trust is the most difficult thing to develop, and the easiest thing to destroy. Therefore, a strong policy addressing dishonesty should be adopted and enforced. There can be no ambiguity or equivocation about the fact that dishonesty, in any form, will not be tolerated. And whatever you do, don't compromise on ethics. Hypocrisy is a behavioral form of dishonesty, usually involving lofty comments or promises followed by contradictory behaviors.

For example, how many times have you heard: " Thanks for the feedback" but your input was never acted upon ; " We trust you" but there was no tangible display of value ; "We trust you" but you'd better ask permission before doing anything ; " We believe in employee involvement" anytime between the hours of and on Fridays ; " We care" as long as it's convenient and doesn't cost anything ; " We are percent committed to quality" but you'd better get the product out on time, or else ; Many organizations talk a good game, saying one thing but doing another. The surest way to reduce the HQ Hypocrisy quotient in your organization is by closely monitoring the consistency between words and actions.

Above all, avoid using exaggerated claims, exhortations, and slogans that invite hypocrisy. Senior management must model" walking the talk," Managers at all levels should also become much more sensitive to employees' perception of their behavior. Withholding information or management secretiveness is yet another form of dishonesty that frequently demotivates employees.

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The most common complaints in organizations are: "My supervisor doesn't keep me informed. Many companies still maintain a highly paternalistic attitude toward employee communication " We will tell them what they need to know when they need to know it". Organizations today are eager to call employees "partners" or "associates" or "colleagues," but few of the employees feel like real partners when management fails to share comprehensive business information. Therefore, it is essential for organizations to move from withholding information to revealing as much as possible.

Unfairness ranks very high among the most demotivating aspects of organizational life. Many organizations are teeming with what employees perceive as unfair practices. These practices generate more than their share of negative emotions. Employees always complain from unfair compensation in their organizations.

Workers inevitably will compare their compensation packages salary, wages. Commissions, bonuses, benefits and other rewards. If they find discrepancies, this can be extremely discouraging. Other practices that employees perceive as unfair include preferential treatment, special favors, and management perks. Few organizations recognize just how demotivating unfairness is, and so these practices persist. Unfairness can be reduced by taking a strong position against preferential treatment of any kind. Is your organization reluctant to openly share compensation information with employees?

Many are, because they know there are serious inequities. In contrast, smart organizations regularly review their compensation practices, both for internal consistency and in comparison with other organizations. In these organizations, favoritism is being eliminated, and special privileges are being drastically curtailed.

At one time or another, all employees have tried to be creative, only to find the effort met with significance resistance. Because of this resistance many organizations are very discouraging place in which to work. This resistance most frequently comes in the form of discouraging supervisory comments, such as: "It won't work. Resistance also comes in the form of bureaucratic and cumbersome suggestion system that "reward" employee ideas by way of a form letter thanking the employee for the idea, but explaining that it was rejected for one reason or another.

At other times, ideas are simply ignored, making employees feel put down " They don't feel that my ideas are worthy of attention" and resentful "If they don't care, why should I? The word no is the most demotivating word in the English language, especially when it comes without an adequate explanation. Therefore, Managers must do their best do avoid it when dealing with their employees.

Criticism is a type of negative communication that takes man forms, both verbal and nonverbal. It includes such interpersonal abuse as snide remarks "zingers" , belittling, frowns, dirty looks, and a hundred other types of "put-downs. Criticism is extremely powerful-even more powerful than praise. It has been said that "a single criticism can sometimes wipe out the effect of a hundred compliments. The best way to overcome criticism in the workplace is by developing a no-criticism culture.

Criticism has no place in any organization that aspires to achieve effective motivation. Companies need to educate managers and supervisors to appreciate the value of mistakes. Furthermore, much of problem of overreaction to mistakes is due to poor measurement and feedback. Almost every employee wants to contribute to the maximum extent possible, but most employees never get to use their full capacities at work.

The capacity underutilization problem in many organizations always depresses employees at work. Some organizations are compounding the problem by filling routine production jobs with college graduates and even those with post graduate degrees. Superficially, this might appear to be cunning cost-effective, and initially the employees might be delighted to have a job; however, from a motivational perspective, this is rarely a good idea.

The tremendous waste of human potential that results from capacity underutilization can be substantially reduced by changing the all-too-common approach to human resources planning wherein hiring often takes precedence over effective utilization. Have you ever had to work with a poor performer? Chances are that you, like me, have experienced it many times. Many organizations create this demotivating situation by tolerating mediocre performance in the name of "humane" treatment which most employees know is really a sign of management weakness, indecision, or office politics. Some companies not only tolerate poor performance, they reward it by providing across-the-board compensation increases.

One employee described his company's attitude toward performance in the following way: "In our company, if you do a really outstanding job, you get very well rewarded. And if you do a mediocre job, you also get very well rewarded! Low standards, undeserved generosity, lax discipline, and failure to terminate are personnel practices greeted by employees with derision rather than gratitude. These practices are not good business, nor are they ultimately humane.

To overcome this problem, managers can help employees to become significant contributors again. The performance of many of these employees can be rejuvenated by identifying their hidden strengths and encouraging them to participate more in planning their work.

Organizations should also provide plenty of counseling and assistance for problem employees, up to a point. However, If all remedial efforts fail, and if poorly performing employees continue their sub-par contributions, there is no option but to terminate them promptly.

Motivation - Research paper

What happens to people in organizations who quietly do a good job? Generally nothing! Most workers receive little or no positive feedback or recognition, and, sadly, most supervisors and managers are genuinely unaware of how little personal attention they give employees. Employees don't require attention all the time, but nobody wants to be taken for granted.

The famous Howthorne experiments showed that, no matter how generous the big rewards, it is the little thing, like management attention, that have the greatest motivational impact. Nothing shows more genuine regard than responding promptly and constructively to employee concerns. Addressing demotivators will also send powerful "we care" message to employees, as will greater emphasis on employee safety. Organizations that aspire to effective motivation must create high management visibility by communicating to managers that they should spend more time in the operating areas of the company and less time in their offices.

However, although management visibility has a huge symbolic importance to employees, just wandering around aimlessly is not enough. Managers must pause long enough to talk, ask the right questions, and, most importantly , listen. Overcontrol in one company, at least, contemptuously referred to as "snoopervision" is really the opposite of the now-popular term "empowerment. In fact, in most bureaucratic organizations, a high degree of control is actually considered to be a virtue.

Overcontrol comes in many forms, from the unwillingness of supervisors to allow employees to take even the slightest initiative without prior permission to elaborate financial constraints and necessary upper management approvals. The suitable way to overcome overcontrol in the workplace is by empowering employees, while still maintaining healthy control. If you really want to demotivate employees, just take away an entitlement. This always happens in many organizations, especially in generous organizations with the best intentions.

For example, a new compensation program might be installed to improve performance, but because it was poorly conceived, it has to be taken away or drastically changed. An employee benefit might be added in times of plenty, then taken away in times of austerity. Takeaways are not limited to pay and benefits.

In another particularly demotivating case, a high-profile project was assigned to a team of employees, but after they had completed the analysis phase, the implementation was assigned to a management group.

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The negative fallout from the action showed that removing authority can be the greatest takeaway of all. Takeaways are totally unnecessary, and are almost always symptomatic of a management planning failure. As a manager, do not commit organizational resource to any new initiative until some contingency planning has been done. Pilot projects can help out, by enabling new programs to be tested on a small scale before they are implemented organization-wide.

The cost of poor quality goes far beyond the cost of replacement, scrap, and dissatisfied customers.

It includes the devastatingly impact on employees. Most workers want to feel good about the quality of their work. But some organizations often decide that they must sacrifice quality in order to meet shot-term production goals. Too many organizations blame poor quality on "careless employees. Instead, management should ask: "What's wrong with our systems that cause employees to do substandard work. Another answer to "poor quality. Encourage employee involvement in production decisions.

However, if your organization wants an immediate impact on quality, stop production as soon as quality problems are detected. Nothing sends a more dramatic message about management's commitment to quality than not producing poor-quality products-regardless of the cost. Reduction of demotivators in your company is an effective way to improve performance of your employees and increase productivity.

There are two ways in which demotivators can be attacked. Frist, direct action can remove the underlying causes of a particular demotivator. Furthermore, since many demotivators are closely related, reducing one demotivator may also reduce others. Second, adding motivators will almost always cause an indirect reduction in demotivators. Here are eight steps that relate to the direct reduction of demotivators. All will greatly facilitate demotivator reduction in your organization. Ensure sponsorship. As indicted above, top management commitment is essential for reducing demotivators.

A high-level sponsor should serve as the champion of the demotivator reduction process. Create realistic expectations. Realistic expectations for demotivator reduction are essential. No one should expect an overnight miracle. Demotivator reduction must be presented as an ongoing process, not a 'quick fix. Empower a coordinating team. Employee involvement in an essential ingredient in any organizational improvement program, and demotivation reduction is on exception. This is why forming a team to coordinate it is so important. Although most corrective actions will have to be mandated by upper management, such a team can provide a crucial link with the workforce throughout the process.

Furthermore, while an external consultant can sometimes be helpful in launching the project, expanding it, and sustaining it, without internal facilitators, the project will eventually die. Any such team should be broad-based, with a diverse, cross-functional membership representing all major areas and levels of the organization.

The major qualifications for membership are interest and credibility. Team members should preferably be selected by their peers to ensure rank-and-file support. In unionized companies, union representation is crucial. Furthermore, rotating membership will increase opportunities for employee participation. Involvement in such a team should not require more than a few hours per week, and adequate released time must be provided.

Prior to starting, the team should be thoroughly educated about demotivators and participate in some team-building activities. The team should also select a leader from its membership. Identify the highest-priority demotivators. Trying to address all demotivators at once is unrealistic. It is far better to attack demotivators one or a few at a time, starting with the highest-priority ones. There are many ways to prioritize demotivators. However, the best way is to ask the employees. After all, employee perception is at the root of all demotivators, and most employees have had quite a bit of personal experience with them.

Although the coordinating team, together with the sponsor, should make the ultimate decision about what demotivators to target first. This can be done using a variety of data collection methods, such as questionnaires, interviews, or focus groups. Whichever method or combination of methods you select, the answers to the followi- ng six questions are crucial for identifying and prioritizing demotivators. What demotivators exist in the organization? Where does each motivator occur? Although most demotivators occur organization-wide, some may be localized to specific department or functions.

When does each demotivator occur? Demotivators sometimes occur more frequently at particular Time, such as during peak production periods when there is greater stress. In what forms does each demotivator manifest itself? How does each demotivator affect employees? What constrains might hinder demotivator reduction? There are many factors, such as strongly held beliefs, deeply entrenched behavior patterns, or unresolved union-management issues, that can sabotage any demotivator reduction effort.

The first four questions will reveal the prevalence of demotivators, the fifth question will indicate the seriousness of each demotivator, and the sixth question will help determine the feasibility of attempting to reduce a particular demotivator.

The answers to these questions can be rather easily translated into a prioritized list of demotivators. You might also find it useful to look for related demotivators. Selecting clusters odf demotivators will enable more than one demotivator to be addressed concurrently. Develop a demotivator reduction strategy. Once priorities have been established, a general approach or strategy for demotivator reduction should be formulated. In drafting a strategy, you should recognize, above all, that demotivators represent an organizational expectation problem.

As stated earlier, demotivators tend to exist and proliferate because they have been allowed to. Demotivators can usually be significantly reduced, even without any other action, when management clearly and unambiguously demonstrates the particular demotivating conditions will no longer be accepted. It is vital that senior management take action to remove any rewards that, often unintentionally, reinforce demotivating behaviors. A well-established psychological principle suggests that when rewards for any behavior positive or negative are removed, the behavior will generally extinguish.

Not only do rewards for negative behaviors need to be eliminated, but support for positive behaviors must also be established. Two crucial support factors are example and training. For instance, if you want to reduce unproductive meetings in your organization, senior managers should be the first to demonstrate productive meeting leadership behaviors. This is why meeting leadership skills training should begin at the top, and then be expanded throughout the organization.

The same basic strategy holds true for addressing all demotivators: First, create positive expectations; second, remove any rewards for negative behavior, and third provide support for positive behaviors. Develop specific plans for demotivaror reduction. In order to be successful implemented, any strategy needs a detailed plan. Therefore, a step-by-step plan for reducing each targeted demotivator should be developed, including action steps, deadlines, required resources, and allocations of respons- ibility. Although organization-wide demotivator reduction should be carefully planned, you can supplement it with more informal efforts.

Creating a "demotivator busting" attitude throughout the organization will lead to greater awareness of the problem. Furthermore, managers and supervisors should be empowered to find and reduce demotivators in their own departments and work areas. Emphasize communication during implementation. No strategy or plan is any better than how well it is implemented. And communication is a crucial aspect of implementation.

This is one area where the coordinating team can be particularly valuable. Employees throughout the organization should be regularly updated about the progress of the project, and ongoing input should be solicited. Inclusion, openness, and involvement are the hallmarks of any successful demotivator reduction process. Recognize improvements. If you want to keep any improvement process going, recognition must be given for progress.

This is another area in which the coordinating team can be particularly helpful. Team members should elicit feedback from their own departments and work areas about employees' perception of how well the demotivator reduction process is progressing. Positive feedback can then be communicated to those responsible for making the changes. Furthermore, we all know that management generally receives much more negative feedback than positive feedback from employees. This is an excellent opportunity to improve the ratio. Satisfy Basic Needs at Work -people require certain needs at work in order to do their jobs effectively.

Therefore, recognizing and satisfying these needs will help you to get the best from them. These include basic income, fringe benefits, bonuses, vacation time, company car, and similar items.

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These conditions include working hours, workplace layout, facilities, and equipment provided for the job. The company policy is the rules and regulations-formal and informal-that govern employers and employees. A person's status is determined by rank, authority, and relationship to others, reflecting a level of acceptance.

This is the degree of confidence that the employee has regarding continued employment in an organization. This factor concerns the extent of control that an individual has over the content and execution of a job. This is the level and type of interpersonal relations within the individual's working environment. An individual's personal life is the time spent on family, friends, and interests-restricted by time spent at work.

Satisfy Desires. Desire is what propels us forward. It is a desire that releases the tremendous motivational energy that all human beings possess. Desire has been responsible for instigating all the man-made miracles of the world, all scientific discoveries, and all commercial breakthroughs. Desire has motivated every visionary business leader to discover new products, develop breakthrough strategies, and pioneer new industries. When allowed to express itself, desire can be an incredibly creative force. Desire differs from need. A need is something that is essential for the survival of living creature.

Most traditional theories of motivation have focused on the concept of need. According to these theories, human behavior is seen as governed by "need reduction. Then homeostasis satisfaction takes over until the next need arises. According to this paradigm, people are rather passive and reactive. In contrast, desires are things we actively want; they might make us happier and more effective, but we will not die without them. When we desire something strongly enough, we become very persistent in its pursuit. In fact, with strong enough desire, nothing is impossible. A full life requires the expression of desires.

Without desire, we would be stuck in one place. We would be completely satisfied. But we are not programmed to be satisfied. From our first breath of life, we want. As soon as we get what we want, we want more. Human beings are motivated by what they seek, not by what they have. It is human nature to be dissatisfied with the status quo. Dissatisfaction gives rise to desire. Satisfaction is actually the absence of motivation. There are eight major human desires, each of which has the potential for releasing enormous amounts of motivational energy. These are the desires for activity, ownership, power, affiliation, competence, achievement, recognition, and meaning.

When these desires are allowed to find expression, great motivation is generated. When these desires are blocked, anger and frustration are the inevitable result. The desire for activity reflects the innate human orientation toward stimulation- to be active, to be engaged, and to enjoy life. In our personal lives, we typically find extremely creative ways to avoid boredom. However, at work, there tend to be fewer options. Employees want to be active and involved. They want more variety in their work. They know that work should be more fun than it is now.

Ownership has become a measure of self-worth. Owning things makes people feel better about themselves. In fact, in contemporary society, the more a person owns, the better he or she is considered to be. How much one possesses has become the primary yardstick of human value. When someone owns something, he or she takes much more pride in it. People will spend countless hours mowing their lawns, washing their cars and boats, and cleaning their houses.

They even spend large sum of money for the equipment and related paraphernalia. Ownership is certainly not limited to material possessions and tangible items. Psychological ownership may be even more important than material ownership. Consider how protective people are about their ideas, and how sensitive they are when their ideas are criticized or ignored. Human history is littered with people who fought and died to protect ideas they felt strongly about. In the workplace, we have scarcely begun to scratch the surface in discovering opportunities for satisfying employees' potent desire for ownership.

How many employees take real pride in their workplace, their equipment, the products they produce, and the company the work for? If they don't, it's only because their desire for ownership has been frustrated. Employees want to "own" their work, and they are willing to work very long hours, even for less pay, to experience the spirit of ownership.

They want to feel responsible for their jobs and major projects. The desire for ownership can release enormous energy in each and every employee if we simply create an environment conductive to it. It should not be at all surprising that in some organizations, increasing the sense of employee ownership in work has dramatically improved productivity and quality.

The desire for power is also deeply rooted in human nature. Unfortunately, a great many people today feel that they are powerless over the external forces shaping their lives. There are a great many external controls, both inside and outside of work, that rob employees of a sense of personal power.

People want to make choices. They desperately want control over their own destinies. Traditionally, organizations have been highly controlling places. The conventional model of power in organizations consists of a strong manager giving orders to a weak employee, who follows obediently. According to this model, employees are expected to trade their freedom for a paycheck. Today, an increasing number of employees are demanding their freedom back.

Employees always say expression like these in their organizations: "I want to make decisions about my work" "Why do I have to ask permission about everything if I have an ability to make decisions? People naturally resist external control. Even children rebel when parents place too many restrictions on them. Why should adults be expected to passively accept major restrictions on their freedom?

Most employees have very few choices. They are told when to come to work, where to work, what to wear, what to do, how to do it, when to take breaks, when to leave, etc. Enlightened organizations everywhere are beginning to address the desire for power. Empowerment has become a major organizational theme. Companies are discovering that by creating an empowering environment, they are able to release enormous quantities of previously untapped motivational energy.

We human beings are social creatures. We have a deep desire to interact and socialize with one another. Although some of us may desire more social contact than others, there is little doubt that the desire for affiliation exists in everyone. This is the primary reason why solitary confinement is considered to be such a severe punishment. Work provides extremely important affiliative opportunities.

It provides rich and varied social contact and relationships. In fact, for many people, work is the major source of social affiliation. Social support and helping relationships 9especially from peers are among the many benefits that work provides. Work groups-from departments to unions to informal groups-provides employees with a strong sense of social identity. This sense of identity is one of the major reasons for the explosive growth of the team concept, which is truly revolutionizing the workplace.

Competence may be the most fundamental human desire because human survival depends on it. Very little else is possible without sufficient competence. Competence is also at the very core of self-esteem. In fact, self-esteem is really nothing more than self-perceived competence. Competence requires learning, and human beings are natural learners. The work environment ought to be the most fertile territory for learning. There are so many opportunities to learn and so many skills to master at work. Competence is a deep and abiding desire.


Virtually all employees welcome opportunities to feel more competent. Another powerful human desire is the desire for achievement. Because of its centrality to work, achievement has probably been the subject of more motivational research than any other desire. It has been said that in all people there lies the "seed of achievement," which, if used, can carry them to undreamed-of heights. Achievement has also been described as one of the fundamental routes to happiness. Achievement has a lot to do with the feeling of succeeding.

Although success means different things to different people, everybody thrives on some form of success. For some, it means creating a masterpiece; for others, it means completing a project on time; and for still others, it means just taking a step in the right direction. The ultimate satisfaction from achievement is pride, or a feeling of accomplishment. When people feel good about what they have accomplished, no external reward is needed. In fact, external rewards sometimes detract from the intrinsic pleasure of pure achievement. No desire is more clearly universal than the desire for recognition.

Everyone wants to feel appreciated by others, to be positively recognized for his or her merits and contributions. The desire for recognition is deeply ingrained in human nature. All of us have a virtually insatiable hunger for genuine positive recognition, which is amply demonstrated in our appetite for honors, medals, trophies, titles, and the like. These tokens of esteem hold great significance for the human ego.

We all know how difficult it is to keep going without encouragement and appreciation. Everybody needs an occasional pat on the back and a word of encouragement from time to time. Without it, motivation diminishes rapidly. Desire for recognition is so strong that people who do not receive enough positive recognition will often seek negative recognition by provoking punishment. Some people who receive inadequate recognition become seriously depressed. Recognition can be given in a great many diverse ways, from money to gifts to a simple "thank you.

All human beings want to feel that their life matters, that they are living for a reason other than just to make a living and makes stockholders richer. The desire for meaning is a powerful motivational force. People want to feel significant, and want to feel that their efforts, however humble, are making a difference.

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The human spirit seeks more than a mundane life. It seeks meaning beyond survival and wealth. All people want to find something they can truly believe in and commit to-a mission that transcends the ordinary and transform their existence into something extraordinary. The more people care about something, the more they will strive to make it happen. Many people are willing to give their lives for a cause that they deeply believe in. Although work has unlimited potential for meaning, people are likely to find more meaning in religion, in political causes, or in charity than in the work they do.

Privacy Copyright. Skip to main content. DigitalCommons EMU. Author Shannon Riley. Abstract Throughout time, many have attempted to develop detailed theories and studies of motivation, satisfaction, and self-awareness. Included in Finance and Financial Management Commons. Now, good luck with your own essay writing and application! Contact me if you have any questions or suggestions for writing a motivation letter! Skip to content. Tianlin He , Posted on Previous Previous post: Sci-Life-Lab unlocked!